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Possible Answers: DESI.
Random information on the term “DESI”:
Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ambient ionization technique that can be coupled to mass spectrometry for chemical analysis of samples at atmospheric conditions. Coupled Ionization sources-MS systems are popular in the chemical analysis because the individual capabilities of various sources combined with different MS systems allow for chemical determinations of samples. DESI employs a fast-moving charged solvent stream, at an angle relative to the sample surface, to extract analyses from the surfaces and propel the secondary ions toward the mass analyzer. This tandem technique can be used to analyze forensics analyses, pharmaceuticals, plant tissues, fruits, intact biological tissues, enzyme-substrate complexes, metabolites and polymers. Therefore, DESI-MS may be applied in a wide variety of sectors including food and drug administration, pharmaceuticals, environmental monitoring, and biotechnology.
DESI has been widely studied since its inception in 2004 by Professor Zoltan Takáts, et al., in Professor Graham Cooks’ group from Purdue University with the goal of looking into methods that didn’t require the sample to be inside of a vacuum. Both DESI and direct analysis in real time (DART) have been largely responsible for the rapid growth in ambient ionization techniques, with a proliferation of more than thirty new techniques being found today. These methods allow for complex systems to be analyzed without preparation and throughputs as high as 45 samples a minute. DESI is a combination popular techniques, such as, electrospray ionization and surface desorption techniques. Electrospray ionization with mass spectrometry was reported by Malcolm Dole in 1968, but John Bennett Fenn was awarded a nobel prize in chemistry for the development of ESI-MS in the late 1980s. Then in 1999, desorption of open surface and free matrix experiments were reported in the literature utilizing an experiment that was called desorption/ionization on silicon. The combination of these two advancements led to the introduction of DESI and DART as the main ambient ionization techniques that would later become multiple different techniques. One in particular, due to increasing studies into optimization of DESI is, Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization. In this technique the analyte is desorbed into a bridge formed via two capillaries and the analysis surface.