"Yow!"

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Possible Answers: EGAD, OUCH, YIKES.

Random information on the term “EGAD”:

Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2. GAD uses PLP as a cofactor. The reaction proceeds as follows:

In mammals, GAD exists in two isoforms encoded by two different genes – GAD1 and GAD2. These isoforms are GAD67 and GAD65 with molecular weights of 67 and 65 kDa, respectively. GAD1 and GAD2 are expressed in the brain where GABA is used as a neurotransmitter, GAD2 is also expressed in the pancreas.

At least two more forms, GAD25 and GAD44 (embryonic; EGAD) are described in the developing brain. They are coded by the alternative transcripts of GAD1, I-80 and I-86: GAD25 is coded by both, GAD44 – only by I-80.


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GAD65 and GAD67 synthesize GABA at different locations in the cell, at different developmental times, and for functionally different purposes. GAD67 is spread evenly throughout the cell while GAD65 is localized to nerve terminals. This difference is thought to reflect a functional difference; GAD67 synthesizes GABA for neuron activity unrelated to neurotransmission, such as synaptogenesis and protection from neural injury. This function requires widespread, ubiquitous presence of GABA. GAD65, however, synthesizes GABA for neurotransmission, and therefore is only necessary at nerve terminals and synapses. In order to aid in neurotransmission, GAD65 forms a complex with Heat Shock Cognate 70 (HSC70), cysteine string protein (CSP) and Vesicular GABA transporter VGAT, which, as a complex, helps package GABA into vesicles for release during neurotransmission. GAD67 is transcribed during early development, while GAD65 is not transcribed until later in life. This developmental difference in GAD67 and GAD65 reflects the functional properties of each isoform; GAD67 is needed throughout development for normal cellular functioning, while GAD65 is not needed until slightly later in development when synaptic inhibition is more prevalent.

EGAD on Wikipedia

Random information on the term “OUCH”:

This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total.

The following 97 pages are in this category, out of 97 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

OUCH on Wikipedia