‘Zounds!’

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Possible Answers:

EGAD.

Last seen on: Wall Street Journal Crossword – Jan 5 2019 – Shaken, Not Stirred

Random information on the term “EGAD”:

Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2. GAD uses PLP as a cofactor. The reaction proceeds as follows:


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In mammals, GAD exists in two isoforms with molecular weights of 67 and 65 kDa (GAD67 and GAD65), which are encoded by two different genes on different chromosomes (GAD1 and GAD2 genes, chromosomes 4 and 10 respectively).[1][2] GAD67 and GAD65 are expressed in the brain where GABA is used as a neurotransmitter, and they are also expressed in the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas, in varying ratios depending upon the species.[3] Together, these two enzymes maintain the only physiological supply of GABA in mammals.[2]

Several truncated transcripts and polypeptides of GAD67 are detectable in the developing brain,[4] however their function, if any, is unknown.

Despite an extensive sequence similarity between the two genes, GAD65 and GAD67 fulfill very different roles within the human body. Additionally, research suggests that Gad65 and Gad67 are regulated by distinctly different cellular mechanisms.

EGAD on Wikipedia